Tag Archives: planning

…On State Street, that Great Street, I Just Want to Say…

A return visit to the Chicago Cultural Center, just down the street from State, gave us additional time to devote and absorb the energetic and inspirational Chicago Architectural Biennial submittals from architects around the world.

Here are a few of the three-dimensional models and miniaturization of the world on display:

Here’s a link to the Bamboo House (my favorite model above) if you are interested:
http://archi.ocean-site.com/bamboo.html

And the “Supermodels”, 16′ high models of the 1922 Chicago Tribune competition reinterpreted:

An endless array of aesthetic and architectural textures, patterns and rhythms to explore and adore:

Real World great rooms with views inside and from the Chicago Cultural Center (formerly the Chicago Public Library):

Earlier in the morning, a six hour tour of the S.C. Johnson Wax Research Building and Laboratories in Racine, Wisconsin gave us a glimpse of one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s major clients. Johnson produced some of the most prolific household products, including Raid, Deet, Kiwi Shoe Polish, and Pride Furniture Polish. Wingspread, the 14,000 sf private home of S.C. Johnson and the last major residence designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, was also a featured stop on the tour.

Here are a few of the highlights of the company facilities. We were only allowed to take photos of exteriors of buildings and grounds:

The alien landing of the Company Reception Center was designed by Lord Norman Foster:

Needless to say, everything in the original buildings was meticulously designed by Architect Frank Lloyd Wright, including all details and finishes for flooring, ceiling, walls, and furniture.

At Wingspread, the interior of the private home was also highly controlled by Wright.

He had many disagreements with his client H.C. Johnson and his third wife Irene Purcell, a former Hollywood actress. Although he often tripled the cost of construction, Wright designed and built many quality homes applying his innovative concepts of horizontal lines that blended in with the landscape, use of natural materials, and attention to detail.

The dining table was designed to move on wheels into the servant’s area so staff did not have to be seen by guests. Whenever the roof leaked, the clients and staff often had to bring buckets out to catch the rain.

At an important state dinner held at the Johnson residence on a rainy evening  the roof leaked again, but this time directly on the owner’s bald head at the table. He immediately summoned Wright in Arizona and asked what should be done. Wright simply retorted: “You should move your chair!” Wright’s ego was seldom matched by his clients’.

In the final analysis, Chicago is a must see if: (1) you are contemplating a career in architecture; (2) need to be reminded of why you became one in the first place; and (3) need another fix for the architectural addiction you always had.

Fong & Daughter’s 72-hours in Chicago  achieved our desire for at least two of the three. We also succeeded in pursuing and understanding architecture as craft. I hope you enjoyed traveling here with us on this whirlwindy weekend. Chicago has great streets with great people in a great city.

Day 44-45: Lost Schlosses of Barbarossa and Benrath

Kaiserwerth, just north of Dusseldorf on the Rhine, is the site of the legendary medieval Barbarossa castle. As Emperor, he built these fortifications to control the Rhine River. The town is just a small suburb of Dusseldorf. It’s easy enough for weekend party goers to get to (by public transportation, no less!) and an excuse for drunken brawls at the outdoor beer garden. It was already in full swing by Friday afternoon at 3pm.

The beach and feeder to the Rhine were fun and idyllic spots for local visitors and the historic town of Kaiserwerth made it a refreshing and worthwhile escape from the city.

Schloss Benrath (former residence of Elector Carl Theodor (1724-1799)

On my way out of the city headed south to Schloss Benrath, I continued to be impressed by the public transportation in Germany and how easy it is to get around. I am injecting photos of Schloss Benrath along with my commentary. They don’t have anything to do with each other, but maybe the pictures will help make my thoughts more interesting to read!

Having worked for the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway System in my first job out of graduate school, I became an incorrigible train junkie. I got my “first training wheels” from former British Rail or London Tube engineers. They were making use of their ex-pat junkets in Hong Kong, living a colonial life of luxury at a time that was soon to eclipse. The looming year 1997 was just around the corner, signaling the end of the empire after more than 150 years of dominance.

(note: The Palace was decorated with fabric sculptures as part of a special exhibition.)

Nevertheless, I used the skills the Brits taught me about station design, vent shafts, headways and trip generations. This led to a lifetime pursuit. I enjoy and marvel at all of the planning and logistics needed to run a public transportation system. Transit system design integrated with high density development worked wonders, particularly in Hong Kong, but the concept is no exception in major European cities.

When I get on a local transit system in Germany, I get excited by its sheer beauty and efficiency. Its citizens appreciate and  respect the system so it stays clean. The users, the workers, the managers, the leadership all work for a common goal. There are places for luggage in lieu of seats (see photo) so the upholstery isn’t damaged.  Someone can still sit there if needed. Smart signage says it’s ok to have coffee but you need a cover for it.  (See sticker in the middle of the window).

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Yes, some design forethought can go a bit far. At the Schloss Benrath, I noticed all the “mother” hardware that could probably last 1000 years in place. Forged of hand wrought brass, the hinges are twice the size of the door handle.  It must have been decided that the weight of the door on the hinge produces greater stress than a door handle holding a door in place. Any ideas, engineers in the audience? In any event, it’s different from common practice today. We just replace hinges when they wear out.

On the German speaking tour. I heard a big gasp from the crowd about the size of a corset in the early 18th Century–a mere 46 cm! I’ll let you calculate the conversion.(:))

And at the Schloss outside:  a pretty picture who looked good enough to be a model to me…

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Days 5-8: Dizzyin’ D.C.

The number of museums (all free) in Washington D.C. is staggering, and deciding which ones to visit is a daunting challenge. We decided to each pick one today–and a few off the beaten path. We had already covered the most popular ones in the past with our kids–the National Gallery, the Smithsonian, the National Air and Space.

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First, we headed to the U.S.Holocaust Museum. The featured photo above shows the five-story high atrium of the museum. Photos of Jewish families who perished in the Holocaust were displayed there.  The chain of events leading to the holocaust were many and complex, to say the least.  False evidence blamed the Jews for killing Christ.

Around 1525, Martin Luther initially embraced them. He later turned against them when they refused to convert to Protestantism. It wasn’t until 1994 when the Lutheran church acknowledged Luther’s anti-Semitism.

We primarily think of the Jews from Germany and Austria being sent to camps and killed there. Even more Jewish people from Romania, Poland, Russia and Lithuania were killed. Many were forced to live in ghettos segregating them from mainstream society. However, most Jews living in Italy, Bulgaria and Hungary were spared.

There were chilling graphic depictions of the camps. The arrival of American troops helped to document the horrors before evidence was destroyed. More than half of those who were liberated died within two weeks of being freed. They were already too sick to survive or were unable to digest the food they consumed.

While very sad and sobering, the museum presented an important lesson in history. Similar events could take place again.  This museum teaches us the social, political, and economic circumstances behind such heinous acts and the chain of events that caused the Holocaust. You can learn more about the museum here: https://www.ushmm.org/information/exhibitions/museum-exhibitions/permanent.

In the afternoon, we made our way to the Native American Museum. While the museum is housed in an impressive building, it didn’t reduce the weight of the subject and its history. The many tribes and unions between nations were systematically ignored and destroyed.

The many treaties that were created between the Native Americans and the U.S. were constantly violated, despite initial good intentions. The map below shows how Americans pushed the Native Americans westward further and further from their homelands, while new settlers expanded into these territories.

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Non-native Population Expansion, 1820 (Dark Red), 1850 (Rust), and 1890 (Yellow)

We welcomed the slow walk back to the hotel to ponder our thoughts from the day’s deep and sobering educational experiences.

Days 7-8: The NMAAHC, Capitol Hill, and the Museum for Women in the Arts

Many of the newer Washington D.C. attractions like the National Museum of African-American History require advanced tickets. I was glad I knew ahead of time, or I would have been disappointed. The stunning new building was designed by David Adjaye and is clad in filigree bronze screen panels.

After being guided down to the lower floor where slavery, civil war, and segregation topics were covered, we began our long difficult journey tracing and understanding the roots of African-American history.

Everyone was very quiet and pensive as we shared the tragic stories of Africans from mostly Central and Coastal West Africa being captured by Portuguese, Dutch, British, French and Danish slave traders. By around 1800, the importation of foreign slaves was banned. Rhode Island slave traders developed and dominated a thriving domestic trade.

Less than half of the captured Africans survived the journey to the Coast or the horrific slave ships. While approximately 500,000 slaves were brought to the States, a total of around 12 million slaves were captured in Africa and sold in the New World. The largest proportion were sent to the Caribbean or to Brazil.

As families were split up and sold, the humiliating auction blocks were used to showcase the black slaves. They were split up from families and loved ones, mothers from their babies. Both sides of the Revolutionary War and the Civil War used the issue of slavery as a strategy to rally supporters to their side. The British and Americans offered freedom to those slaves who fought in the Revolutionary Wars, and the North and the South also made promises to African Americans that often were not kept.

After slavery, it was difficult for African-Americans to survive the post-Civil war era. Many prominent leaders and heroes were featured, and there were many historic events and landmark decisions. Segregation displaced slavery and became another racist era.

The museum was split into the history and dark past on lower levels, and modern culture on upper levels. The NMAAHC offered insight and understanding of the arduous path of not only African-Americans, but the shared path of all Americans. You can read more about the museum’s collections here:  https://nmaahc.si.edu

The combination of these museums left a powerful imprint on my understanding and perspective of oppressed people in America. It seems more pertinent for all of us to learn about the history and development of oppression as race and religion become major issues in our current society.

The stretches between sights and buildings along the Washington Mall and Capitol Hill are far and wide, so good shoes and good planning are essential for surviving D.C. The Washington Metro provided some relief in getting between points, but the distances by foot are intimidating, even to veteran walkers like us. Thanks to L’Enfant and his grandiose French city planning scheme, the wide boulevards and diminished human scale do seem to put people in their places.

Well, the verdict is in. Yes, Washington D.C. is a pretty awesome place. I couldn’t help but compare the time lapse walking between buildings with that of Versailles. We got our royal injection thanks to L’Enfant. And I’m not sure whether the Kremlin and Red Square came first or we did (around 1800), but I’m guessing that National Mall beats Moscow’s in area. While we’re at it, it might be worth comparing Beijing’s Tian An Men Square and Forbidden City.  A research project for another day.

At the opposite end of the National Monument, above are just a few grand dames on Capitol Hill: the U.S. Capitol, the Supreme Court and the Library of Congress.

Above are one of three perfect copies of the Gutenberg Bible at the Library of Congress; and Cupcakes?!? (click on image to see captions and to increase scale)

Below: interior of ornate Italian Renaissance style Library of Congress. Almost stands up to or equal with the Library in Vienna. (To see the Vienna Library, search posting from Day 27 of 2015, dated Aug. 21)

A very understated but worthwhile visit to the Women’s Museum yielded some gems: a Frieda Kahlo Self-Portrait dedicated to Leon Trotsky, and friend Hung Liu’s noble portraits of women who were prostitutes. Gee Kin had trouble identifying five famous women artists, but managed to come up with these and Annie Liebowitz. Sure enough, she had a photo of Dolly Parton proudly on display.

There were numerous other interesting works there, but I felt sad that these great artists (including Berte Morisot and Mary Cassatt whose works were represented) and others (I didn’t see any Georgia O’Keefe) had to find a cause to be celebrated on their own and could not be integrated with the mainstream art world. Can you name five living women artists?

To top off the day at Momofuku DC: Honey Crisp with Arugula, Kimchee, and Maple Sugar; Skate Wing, and Chinese Broccoli with Cashews. Highly recommended.

Apologies for the long post.  Combined posts will reduce the load on your Inbox!

Days 3-4: A Beeline for the Highline and a New York State of Mind

A couple of years ago, I was introduced to the over-the-top experience on the Highline in the Meatpacking District of New York City. It didn’t take much convincing for me to want to retrace my steps again on this visit. The clever landscaping over a derelict elevated railway track, sumptious architecture and brilliant urban planning make the short two-mile long path an essential destination for both tourists and locavores alike. New outdoor art installations have been added since the first visit, and Zaha Hadid, a world-famous architect, has a signature building under construction on the north end. (She recently passed away.)

We made another beeline in the afternoon for Brooklyn. In a posting last month, our Brooklyn buddy researched the Uzbeki-Korean Cafe Lily for us. The hour-long ride to and from Brooklyn was no sweat compared to flying back and forth to Uzbekistan for kimchee and kebabs in one fell swoop.

Thanks to the favorable review from the NY Times in February and an eyewitness account (see the special correspondent report from the February 2017 post), we were not disappointed. Okay, it was after 2pm when we descended on an empty restaurant, but hey–it was open for business.

After a deliciously simple cucumber and tomato salad, perfectly flavored and crisply fresh (exactly as I  remembered the food in Uzbekistan), we slurped beef soup, prepared at the table with condiments, and tickled our palettes with a teeny lamb kebab. The highlight was an entire fried branzino for $15! The whole meal barely topped $50. This was the antidote to gourmet dining.

In Uzbeki food, simple cooking allows the inherent freshness of each ingredient to be sensed and savored with each bite. The Mediterranean emphasis is evident, but subtle. I noticed the care taken in preparing each slice or morsel of food when I visited Tashkent. Samarkand, and Bokhara (Oriental carpet namesakes) on my first world trip. Even though it is Eurasia’s version of California’s Central Valley, Uzbekistan does not seem to take food production lightly. Maybe it’s the depletion of nearby Lake Aral where the water was used inefficiently for cotton growing, or just historical frugality. Uzbekis seem to cherish each and every fruit and vegetable they grow with love and kindness.

Our day was topped off by a third and final beeline to a Billy Joel concert at the mighty Madison Square Garden. Going there was already an experience itself. Watching the living songwriter/master pianist/singer/quintessential entertainer deliver a straight two hour performance without an break was a phenomenon in itself!  It doesn’t take the Metopera to be the pinnacle of civilization. Only the best of the best–like Billy Joel.

Here’s a short clip of the stunning performance with a birdseye view from the rafters:

The next day we visited the Han Dynasty exhibit at the Metropolitan. Here are a few of the many excellent pieces on display.

We’re off to Washington D.C. today, so more museums to come….

Days 61-63: Kusatsu Hot Springs, Japan

I’ve been following a few blogs every now and then. Not often, rather infrequently, just out of curiosity, and to see the style of postings. Mine tend to be pretty straightforward, while I find many blogs pontificate, pyschoanalyze, or philosophize about the meaning of life. I am not trained to do any of those, so I try to steer clear. However, today brought new meaning to life. Staying in a real ryokan, or Japanese style inn, has renewed my ability to appreciate and understand life. That’s a pretty tall order, considering the whirlwind of activities that I have thrust myself into over the past couple of months. But slowing down and being in an exquisitely beautiful area has given me cause to pause and reflect.

Good things come to those who wait. I guess it’s hard to see all the offerings life has before each of us. As we grow older, we are able to differentiate and discriminate. Many think that growing old is a sad process but I am finding it to be uplifting–not always, but the quality of what we see is so different. Once you have perspective on many experiences, you draw from them and can detect what is bitter and what is sweet.

We should have realized what an occasion coming to Kusatsu Hot Springs was going to be. Once we arrived at the bus terminus from the train station (3 hours travel west from Tokyo by 2 bullet trains), we asked the information counter how to reach our hotel. All I had was an address in Japanese. We asked if we could walk there. “Of course,” said the receptionist. “But I can call the hotel and they will come to pick you up. Just have a seat in the lounge and they will find you shortly”. Sure enough, within 5 minutes an older gentleman appeared to whisk us in a van to the hotel about 5 minutes away. Now that’s what I call service.

From the arrival at the entrance to the ryokan, we knew it was going to be special. Soft voices, infinite courtesies, and true hospitality catch our attention. Maybe after Russia and even Mongolia we are sensitive to the manner in which humans greet each other. Not so much the degree of warmth as the presence or absence of it.

The Japanese have the hospitality covered. In this case, it’s a business. But so are the Marriotts and the Goyo Travels (our guide company in Mongolia) and the Zemzuchinas (our hotel in Vladivostok). Everyone makes the effort, but no one knows respect for the customer like what we are getting here.

We were shown to our Japanese style room. Every detail in the room is exquisite–from the carved and lacquered wooden post that trace the inherent knots and wood grain, to the miniaturized proportions and tea service in the room. Every detail is taken into consideration. I don’t know where I heard this before but the thought of “economy, purpose and delight” come to mind.

After casing out every joint (literally, the choice of thickness for wood trim, the depth of niches, the size off doors, the thinness of wood recess handles, etc etc, we tore ourselves out of the room and to the house baths. The hot springs eternal here. As one of the many features, you go to separate quarters for men and women to wash down , then soak in tepid splendor.

Our dinner, with the complete set (see menu), was another version of perfection. I’m not sure how you can produce and consume every item on a menu but they produced and we consumed. They only thing we could do afterwards was roll over and flop into bed from overconsumption. Bad for the heart but great for the head. Anthony Bourdain was right to say the best food in the world is Japanese.

The early morning concert of birds reminded me of how Japan is or was, a tropical island. The wide leafed bamboo, lotus roots, and array of bird life are evidence. The Japanese not only have nature in their DNA, but in their history. It leaves me very envious that the Chinese were not as able to inhale the environment the way the Japanese have. Despite the disarming blight everywhere, the shibui or exquisite beauty seems to well compensate for the shortcomings.

Finally, a brief visit to the art gallery adjacent to the hotel reinforced Japanese compatibility with the sublime modern:

A Note on Travels with Myself and Others

I have been pondering my recent travels. They seem to gravitate on the 38th parallel north or somewhere between 35-40 degrees latitude. It’s not an accident that the San Francisco Bay Area (I was born in Oakland, across the bay), lies on this imaginary line. I probably mentioned that a year or two ago when I traveled along the Silk Road in Uzbekistan, and how everything felt so natural and comprehensible to me.

The beets, carrots, peas and potatoes were reminiscent of home. The Mediterranean climate is easy to get hitched to, but people do not associate it with further flung places like Beijing or Tokyo. The 38th parallel traces through of course Greece, Italy and Turkey, but also parts of China and Japan, Iraq, Iran, and Uzbekistan.

Granted, the culture and weather are different, but I still regard these environments as hospitable and liveable. You can read more about the countries along the 38th degree north here:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/38th_parallel_north.

The Japanese have an infinite respect and appreciation of the environment. It is highly cultivated, but created for the enjoyment of all. They are natural at landscape design, architecture, and planning. Nothing less than awesome is what I’ve just witnessed on a brief morning walk behind the ryokan. This post is for you, Sara and Jim (my professors at Berkeley, to whom I am eternally grateful), and all my Japanese friends).

I have been contemplating what’s next. I’ve toyed with the idea of visiting countries along the ring of fire, but I haven’t convinced myself just yet. Alternatively, I considered tackling the countries along the 38th parallel south. To my dismay, it touches two countries where I have already been: Australia and New Zealand. That leaves Chile and Argentina on the list.

For a video on Vladivostok, click here:https://youtu.be/_i4E0wh-b9k

Day 32: Jewels and Other Gems

The Scharf-Gerstenberg Collection across from the Charlottenburg Palace is dedicated to Surrealism, fantasy, or disturbing ideas of the mind. Many famous painters, such as Picasso, Modigliani, Magritte, Max Ernst, and Klee are displayed in this beautiful gallery.

Photos above:

  1. Upper left: Chapel Quaking, Paul Klee, 1924: This painting shows ominous, other-worldly elements in the sky about to attack the chapel and loosen its foundations
  2. Upper Middle:  the dome of the gallery
  3. Our guide, Dr. Barbara Hofmann, animated in her passionate interpretation of the surrealist art. I couldn’t help but wonder if she knew she was mirroring her subject (Olympia, by Jean Dubuffet, 1950). The body is a rendition of Manet’s Olympia. The artist challenged the regimented standards of the Academy of Arts. Artists at the time rebelled against the Academy, who determined what was or wasn’t considered art.
  4. Carceri, by Piranesi, 1760
  5. A description of Surreal Spaces

In the afternoon, Rainer Jaeshke (from the Potsdam weekend tour) led us to Kreuzberg, one of the popular, East side districts of Berlin. Because it was taken over in the Sixties by squatters, the bourgeois buildings from the turn of the century went into demise. As the housing deteriorated, it became a cheap area where immigrants and the rapidly expanding population could afford to live. The area has become a battleground between developers hoping to make return on investments and neighborhood activists who want to keep the housing affordable and community intact.

Photos above,  from left to right:

  1. Oberbaum Bridge, 1895
  2. Modern day high density housing built over a road
  3. Jewish brass tiles found on a neighborhood street, indicating Jewish presence from the past
  4. An overview of the dividing line between East and West Berlin and canal that is now a park

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A photo from “Jewels” by Choreographer George Balanchine, who created a ballet in the neoclassical style with music from Tchaichowsky and Stravinsky.

The Concert House presented a lovely program of music by Darius Milhaud, “The Creation of the World”; Prokofiev’s “Symphony No. 7 in C Major”; and Mussorgsky’s “Pictures from and Exhibition”. Under guest conductor Dmitri Kitajenko’s direction, every piece was stirring, uplifting and good enough to want to hear again.

Day 30: Tiergarten and Tosca

A walk in the park doesn’t sound very exciting, except that it was very calming and soothing. After many days on the go, this small guided tour was a refreshing green window into another discovery of Berlin’s treasures.

The path at the entrance from the Tiergarten subway stop displayed the many variations of gas lanterns donated to Berlin from other cities (featured image at top). Each one was unique, and I was delighted to find Dresden’s contribution. Each city was proud to showcase its industrial development skills. Sadly, vandalism and limited funds have caused the historic elements to deteriorate.

Although the park is known as “Tiergarten” for “Animal Park”, there are no animals here. They reside in the adjacent Zoological Park. The Tiergarten was originally the private grounds for King Friedrich’s hunting pleasure. The garden was a pit stop between Charlottenburg Palace and the king’s residence in the center of Berlin.

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Among the many monuments and statues in the park, there was a tribute to the King’s hunting days (see photos and header reposted above). Gee Kin and I had discovered this curious pair of statues last year on our visit to the Tiergarten. The park was, and is, a welcome respite to the unbearable heat that can surprise the city. Another pair of statues made tribute to the king and queen. The king was clad in street clothes rather than in his official military regalia. The “street cred” represented his love of the casual, private retreat of the park .

Photos, in gallery, above:

  1. Upper Left: One of the many extensive and romantic paths in the park, designed by landscape designer Peter Joseph Lenne. He created the grand Prussian master plan for the park. He was so successful, that he was able to live on a street in the park named after him in his own lifetime!
  2. Upper Right: A stele monument to the cities that donated trees grown in the park. The park was damaged in WWII and wood was chopped down for firewood.
  3. Middle Photo: The Spanish Embassy is one of the few buildings located in the park. Many other embassies are located along the park but not inside. Spain was one of the few countries with a strong relationship with Germany (along with Austria, Italy, and Japan)
  4. Lower Left: Monument to Victoria: the “Big Star” (Große Stern) was  strategically placed along the 300 year-old east-west axis. The road through it was intended to emulate the Parisian boulevards and widened in the Third Reich.
  5. Lower Right:  This view of the park is a completely man-made version of nature. The images of Claude Lorraine’s paintings and other Romanticists were popular at the time, and this was Lenne’s golden opportunity to do his client good. He even built an artificial island (in the distance in the middle of the photo). The lakes were designed as “mirrors” to reflect the sky and land around it. He did a pretty good job. I wouldn’t be surprised if Frederick Law Olmsted didn’t use this as a model for Golden Gate Park. The German designer followed and copied English landscape design, however, so I don’t know which chicken or egg came first.

A lakeside beer garden is a place where both Berliners and tourists can enjoy a leisurely day in the park. They even have dancing here, but I don’t think they have discovered Tai Chi yet.

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Lakeside Bier Garten

 

A pretty decent performance of Tosca at the Deutsche Oper was hard to beat for 15 Euros, thanks to being a student of the Goethe Institute.

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Days 22-24: Bauhaus Precedents and German History after WWII

The sponsored tours and activities at the Goethe Institute this week were varied and intense.

First, an architectural tour led us outside the city, and to Mexicoplatz, where precedents to Early Modern and Bauhaus styles were still visible. Dr. Carola Veit, who also led two previous architecturally-oriented tours (Potsdamer Platz and the Street Art in Kreuzberg), was our guide. Known as Zehlendorf, this area became a wealthy residential community when Germany’s nouveau riche industrialists built large country houses in the area. Streets and areas were named after cities or countries in South America.

Muthesius studied philosophy and traveled extensively in Asia and Europe. A country house by Muthesius borrowed from the English style that combined garden with building. Designed for entertaining clients, the house included a large dining area, a music room, a separate room for women to drink tea after dinner, and one for men to play cards and smoke. A large catering kitchen was separated from the house to reduce smell and accommodate deliveries. The family’s quarter were located on the floor above the rooms used for guests. (see photo collection below, upper right)

This was one of the first houses developed in Germany utilizing the concept of “form follows function”.  Very little external decoration was used as a departure from previously built homes. Many of the former houses borrowed from many styles and were eclectic in nature. As the industrial class emerged and artists became more prominent, the new design approach respected and encouraged more radical new ideas in architecture.  He was also involved in the design of Hellerau, a garden city outside Dresden. You can read more about Muthesius in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Muthesius and my posting on Hellerau from August 2013.

The project in a forested setting shown in the photo at the lower left was developed between 1926-1932 and was known as “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”. In the 20’s after the first World War, families were very poor and suffered from lack of housing. Bruno Taut attempted to develop decent multi-family housing for families with social and drug problems. Rooms were small, but units had bathrooms, kitchen, and good natural light. The garden was in the back of the development away from the street. All ground floor units had access to the garden, and upper units had individual balconies. Bright “parrot” colors were applied on exterior facades. (see photo below, lower right)

Bruno Taut and his younger brother Max collaborated on projects together and were among the first of the early Modern architects in Berlin. They also married sisters! He went to Moscow in 1932, lived in Japan for awhile, then emigrated to Turkey where he died in 1938.

Two houses nearby were developed by Mies van der Rohe. (Photos above, upper left and bottom left). A wealthy family hired Mies to build a Prussian style house. Mies struggled with the client’s request, but was able to finesse the design by expanding the windows.  In his second house, he made a stronger connection between the outer garden and the interior space. In addition to creating large windows, he added an exhibition space for the client’s art collection and reduced the floor to floor height. Today, the complex is a school for handicapped children.

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The next evening, I attended a lecture that covered German History after World War II. I can’t say that I understood everything in German, but the handouts summarized three periods: from 1945-1948; 1949-1958; and 1961-1972. In the first phase after the war, the international powers divided and dominated geographic areas of Germany and Berlin. In the second phase, the Stalin and the Soviets controlled East Germany and East Berlin; and in the last phase the Khruschov-Kennedy era, the Warsaw Pact led to the building of the Berlin Wall.

One of the more interesting graphics from the lecture showed wagon trains of Germans evacuating Poland and Baltic States after the war.

The very next morning we were offered a follow-up tour of the lecture. “On the Tracks of the National Socialists”, we made stops at the Holocaust Memorial, the site of Hitler’s bunker, and a huge government building built in the 60’s. It was a perfect way to bring perspective on the previous night’s facts.

Standing at the Brandenburg Gate, our guide introduced the development of the Nationalist movement. Albrecht Speer, the Chief Architect and Art Minister for the Nazis, had visions for a new German state. Designated as Germania, this massive new complex in Berlin would become the center of the world. A palace bigger than Versailles was planned there just next to the Brandenburg Gate. 180,000 people could fit inside the building for events.

This massive scheme was never built. Because Berlin was so heavily bombed, many of the new buildings were not built until after reunification in the 90’s. Some buildings look older because they duplicated the original buildings.

The Holocaust Memorial shown above was designed in 1980s by Peter Eisenman, an American architect. The exterior memorial is abstract in honoring the 6 Million Jews who died. Below the memorial, there are four rooms in the museum: one is empty for reflection; the second one is dedicated to the history of the Jewish people; the third one has names of each person who died with his or her biography; and fourth one has a map of places where Jews were deported. The museum serves as an important resource and research center.

Nearby, we stood over a parking lot where Hitler lived his last days in a bunker below. The movie “Marriage of Eva Braun” depicted the grim experience. He had married his secretary only a month before. Goebbels and his family were also in this bunker. Determined to have his children die as Nazis, he gave them cyanide pills before he and his wife killed themselves.

Because Hitler burned to death in the bunker after he committed suicide, no remains were found. Even his teeth were apparently missing. Our guide gave us a few thoughts on the Hitler’s whereabouts. There were a number of conspiracy theories. One was that he fled to Argentina. Another theory was that the Russians, who operated a major center in Magdeburg, took his remains there or buried them in the river. Of course neither theory has been proven.

The history of Berlin is very complicated. In order to help me navigate around the city and understand the physical location of the Berlin Wall, I purchased a postcard of the borderline between East and West. At a granular scale, it is very confusing and intriguing, what parts were where.

You can see that the wall circles around Mitte, the heart of the city. I live just at the edge of the line identified as Number 2 on the postcard. Bernauer Street is where a park is located to commemorate the wall. Communities and neighborhoods that were divided by the wall show a noticeable difference in the architecture, quality, and development stage. Large tracts of land are either left abandoned, waiting for development, or they have already been developed. It really keeps one guessing what happened and curious about both the history and the future.

And if the past few days didn’t have enough activity, here’s one for the opera lovers: the curtain call for the Magic Flute at the Deutsche Oper, another Goethe Institute sponsored event.

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(In Banner above: Topography of Terror, a display about the Stasi. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Topography_of_Terror)

(Note: Apologies for the length and delay of this post. There may be a few factual errors that are being checked for accuracy).

Post updated: 6/7/16

Days 16-17: “Mr Trump: Tear Down that Wall!!

After posting “Ich bin eine Berlinerin” in January this year, I have renewed my vows for this thrilling city. This time, I am even more emphatic and feeling that I have come to greater respect and appreciation of this vibrant, active, and considerate city. I suppose you can find the opposite in any city, but at the moment I am insatiably intoxicated by Berlin and all the human effort that makes a great city livable.

The week has been packed with German lessons, getting to know other students, and walking tours of neighborhoods nearby. I comprehend about half of the commentary since they are in German, but the visual experience provides the other half. There are so many new elements of the city that I had never seen or understood in the past three visits.

After the walking tour of Berlin Mitte from the day before, the same flamboyant guide escorted us to Prenzlauer Berg. Located on the East German side, it started off as a fairly respectable residential neighborhood, with classic Parisian style facades. Our guide pointed out a few vestiges of Jewish life still visible today–a school with a synagogue behind it and some serious security bollards in front.

If you are interested in the artist honored in the sculpture above, here’s a link to Kathe Kollwitz: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%A4the_Kollwitz

The later, mind-numbing residential blocks were created in the Sixties (not shown). To support the residential areas, schools were provided. The renowned and advanced development of German schools was a feature of the tour. One current-day school we stopped at has an “adult-free zone” to reduce stress for kids! Schools and a good education seemed to be a tradition and pride of former East German society.

By the Eighties, Prenzlauer Berg deteriorated to a point of neglect. No families lived in the area because the housing was outdated. The big blocks built previously were designed with only one bathroom and communal kitchen per floor. Twenty years later, no one would tolerate that standard of living. No one could afford to renovate either, so families moved elsewhere.

The guide continued to spin a story for us about how the area was rejuvenated, literally. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, everyone was so euphoric. People in the newly reunified city squatted and held parties in these abandoned buildings. Exactly nine months later…

…and now Prenzlauer is considered one of the most livable and desirable areas for families in the cities! From what was a shelled-out, deteriorated, and abandoned neighborhood, schools and other services were re-established to serve the residents. It’s transformed from what was once today’s version of Kreuzberg to Berlin’s Upper West side.

A tour of Potsdamer Platz gave another completely different dimension to my impression of the area. We had stayed there last year (after the Beijing-Moscow-St. Petersburg Trans-Siberian Express), but spent most of the time in the Tiergarten due to the scorching heat at the time.

This tour focused on the architecture of Modern Berlin, after 1989. The trail meandered through Leipziger Square and the southern end of Potsdamer between the Berlin Philharmonic and Kreuzberg. The guide explained the endless debates about how to weave the east and west portions of the city together. The debate isn’t over, but city planners, architects, and the general public exhausted themselves discussing this issue.

Some of the planning was brilliant and some dismal. What has to be appreciated is that the land was repurposed in a No Man’s Land in the middle of the city. The hype today gives faint pulse rates of a Hong Kong or Shanghai tilted on its side. I was grateful that this tour was offered as a “general” tour, even though it would have been a “specialty” tour elsewhere.

The buildings included the Arkaden, a huge modern shopping mall and fully integrated mixed use development. Residential, office, retail, entertainment are all concentrated in one place. Anchored by the Sony Center and the old Daimler site, these buildings claim WFA (world-famous architects) Helmut Jahn for the Sony Center, Renzo Piano Workshop for the Daimler site, and Richard Rogers for adjacent buildings. It’s a lively place intended for all citizens of Berlin to enjoy.

After missing the Berlin Wall tour departure today by a half an hour, I decided to do my own tour. The Mauer Park and Bernauer Strasse exhibit was literally at the next corner to my accommodation, and I had been meaning to go there. With free time on my feet, I discovered a very moving experience. Not only were the exhibits a reminder of the amazing power of humankind to solve its own problems, but the physical development and energy it took was very reassuring. Once again, I could witness modern history in a very immediate way.

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Trump should come to learn the history of the Berlin Wall and all its trials and tribulations before considering building one himself. I don’t think he would do what he says after he saw what it took to undo one. He should listen to one of his cronies, Reagan, to “Tear down that Wall”.

Some of the information from the displays on the Berlin Wall.

And last, but not least, a few of the ethnic shops just north of where I live. I went into one of the Arabic markets and bought cherries, loquats, poufy dried figs the size of your palm (almost, OK, maybe a fat baby’s), spargel, carrots and celery for soup for 12.75 euros.

My first and last adventure the day before with Currywurst, a national institution, was a bomb. Yucky tasteless frankfurter cut into bite-size pieces (good for the convenience and service), smothered with ketchup (bad), dusted with “curry powder” (bad), and served by Germans (what happened to the “ethnic charm”?!?). FLOP. I usually think of myself as tolerant of any fast food, but this takes the prize for low point in human culture.

Day 10: Hypezig Leipzig

A first reminder of Leipzig’s political history was evident at the main entrance to the Markt. The banner read: “Love Football. Hate Racism”. They continue to extend an open hand to refugees and warn against Neo-Nazi tendencies. Despite the loudspeakers and full police reinforcements nearby, it appeared to be a quiet, orderly, and reassuring demonstration.

Today’s demonstration was a faint reminder of the city’s history. In 1989, Leipzig sparked a series of demonstrations at the Nicholai Church that led to Reunification of Germany. You can read more about Leipzig here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leipzig

Leipzig doesn’t have the appeal and cultural taste of Weimar, but it has music to make up for its visual shortcomings. There are a wealth of classical and rock concerts, performances, plays, and revues, and the Gewandhaus and the Leipzig Opera are world-renown. As a major trading town and international fair promoter, Leipzig seems to have picked up economically since I was last here. Many new malls, museums, and building developments have surfaced, and the economy seems to be booming.

There are still many lovely Baroque-like buildings to appreciate everywhere you turn. Intricate passageways connect positive and negative spaces to each other. The decorative elements and sturdy, well-maintained buildings are reminiscent of Prague. Newer buildings are well integrated into the urban, pedestrianized fabric of the city.

The famed Auerbach’s Keller is where Goethe purportedly wrote “Faust”. The cellar and dark interior of the restaurant spins the mind into believing that Goethe himself must have made a deal with the devil there. A couple of bronze statues at the entrance add to the dramatic air.

The Friday Market was also in full tilt and it wasn’t hard to find seasonal spargel, or asparagus. Every vendor was selling some, and it dropped dramatically from 6 Euros in the morning to only 2 Euros per kilo by midday. Fresh meat, cheese and cakes tempted the eye as well as the palate.

And, the Thomas Kirche offered a moment of peaceful reflection at the end of the day.

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If you want to see an experimental short film on a Leipzig mural in one of the passageways: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yi5GPovC2Vc. Set volume if you want to hear the Thomaskirche organ.